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Please be advised that some of these resources--particularly those created in previous eras--contain descriptions for ancestral, racial, ethnic, and gender identity that may be offensive or harmful to individuals investigating these records, and are considered inappropriate to use in modern times. The descriptions and treatment of historically marginalized groups, women, and animals may be upsetting. Also, please note that inclusion in this subject guide does not necessarily constitute endorsement of the views therein--we encourage investigators to use their own judgment when evaluating books, websites, articles, documents, and other resources.


This page is a DRAFT collaboration between USCGA, CSL, and possibly Shain Library (Conn College).

It is NOT comprehensive - not even close.

It is meant as a way to share the information between librarians helping a researcher - with the goal of, perhaps, making a permanent page in the future (depending on the institutions and who might host it).

USCGA = United State Coast Guard Academy

CSL = Connecticut State Library

1919 Red Summer

1919 is called Red Summer for nationwide racial violence. New London had race riots, although with no reported deaths. 

New London 1919


There were events in New London in 1919 that are considered part of Red Summer. While these events did not result in any reported deaths, at least one was mentioned in a congressional hearing.

Because the arrested sailors and soldiers were turned over to naval authorities, there is little (if any) record for local institutions. New London Annual Report for 1919 listed (for entire year) eight arrests for naval officers and five arrests for army officers (page 149). 

Newspaper accounts give different/conflicting information. There seems to have been at least two events - and some current researchers say there could have been more. Basic information included in the "more" section of resource description - ex. date, if USGA mentioned, etc.

At the time, the USCGA was located at Fort Trumbull, in New London. The naval base was located in_Groton (? need to confirm)__. Navy barracks were segregated. The Hotel Bristol was known as a location sailors of color would frequent.

May 29 or 30, 1919

15-20 sailors and soldiers were arrested by police, fire brigade, and marines called out for riot. The arrested sailors and/or soldiers were turned over to naval base for discipline, so no local records. It was reported that 5,000 civilians came out to watch the fighting - with possibility of them joining in.

June 13, 1919

Riot mentioned in documents about Red Summer. Little details.

June 29, 1919

According to the New England Historical Society article (linked below)- "A Navy memo revealed that marine guards from the base answered another riot call on June 29. A truck full of marines sped down Smith Street and hit a fire hydrant. The city billed the Navy for the fire hydrant, and the disagreement over that supplied the only paper trail of the incident."



These are only a few examples from online sources (articles in freely available sources are linked; articles from subscription databases not linked).

NOTE: citations are copied from sources and will need to be edited to meet requirements of citation style you are using.

New London newspapers are available at the New London Public Library and the Connecticut State Library.

  • "White And Negro Sailors In Clash." Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), May 30, 1919: 1. Readex: America's Historical Newspapers. https://infoweb.newsbank.com/apps/readex/doc?p=EANX&docref=image/v2%3A1252FEAF2D2D3A44%40EANX-127EEC85E83D18E8%402422109-127EEC85EA80DCF3%400-13834738ABB15AE7%40White%2BAnd%2BNegro%2BSailors%2BIn%2BClash.
    • May 29, mentions USCGA
  • "Whites and Negroes Riot in New London." New Britain Herald. May 30, 1919. Page 1.
    • Mentions USCGA, crowd of 400.
New London event(s) mentioned, although resources have broader focus:
  • Schaich, Warren. “A Relationship Between Collective Racial Violence and War.” Journal of Black Studies 5, no. 4 (1975): 374–94. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2783666.
    • page 383

Federal Government

  • United States House Committee on the Judiciary (1920). Segregation and Antilynching: Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Sixty-six Congress, 2d Session on H.J. Res. 75; H.R. 259, 4123, and 11873. Serial No. 14. Federal government of the United States. SuDoc Number: Y4.J89/1:L99/5

  • United States House Committee on the Judiciary (1920a). Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Sixty-sixth Congress, First[-third] Session: Segregation. Anti-lynching. United States Government Publishing Office.
  • Antilynching: Hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Sixty-Sixth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 259, 4123, and 11873. Serial No. 14. January 29, 1920. SuDoc Number: Y4.J89/1:L99/4

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